Everything else that we see with our senses is just an imitation of this perfect version, or perfect 'form'.
Introduction[ edit ] What is knowledge? How do they interact? Is there a correlational, causal, or reciprocal relationship between knowledge and experience? These and other related questions have been at the forefront of investigation by problem solvers, scientists, psychologists, and philosophers for centuries.
These questions, but particularly the problem of how experience and knowledge interrelate, have broad theoretical and practical implications for such academic disciplines as epistemologylinguistics, and psychology specifically the subdiscipline of thinking and problem solving.
Gaining a more precise understanding of human knowledge, whether defined as innate, experientialor both, is an important part of effective problem solving. Plato was the first philosopher who systematically inquired into issues such as those noted above.
He wrote many dialogues, such as Euthyphro and the Apologybut it is from the Meno that the modern instantiation of Plato's Problem is derived.
In the Meno, Plato theorizes about the relationship between knowledge and experience and provides an explanation for how it is possible to know something that one has never been explicitly taught.
Plato believed that we possess innate ideas that precede any knowledge that we gain through experience. As formulated by Noam Chomsky,  accounting for this gap between knowledge and experience is "Plato's Problem". The phrase has a specific linguistic context with regard to language acquisition but can also be used more generally.
These early dialogues do not utilize conventional notions of reason. Rather, they appeal to the emotions, the allegoricalthe spiritualand the mythological interests of an ancient speculative mind. Controversy surrounds the early dialogues in how they are to be interpreted.
Some claim that Plato was truly trying to discover objective reality through these mystical speculations while others maintain that the dialogues are stories to be interpreted only as parables, allegories, and emotional appeals to religious experience.
Regardless, Plato would come to formulate a more rigorous and comprehensive philosophy later in his life, one that reverberates in contemporary Western thought to this day. Some of Plato's famous works are Phaedothe Critoand, as noted earlier, the Meno. Within these works are found a comprehensive philosophy that addresses epistemology, metaphysicsethicsaestheticstheologyand logic.
As noted, most of the writing is in the form of dialogues and arguments to pursue answers to difficult questions and concepts. Plato's teacher and mentor, Socrates, always plays a significant and formative role in these dialogues.
Though there are no extant writings of Socrates known, it is evident through Plato's works that Socrates had an incredible ability to explore the most intense analytical discussions. However, for some there is controversy regarding how much historical fact can be derived from Plato's Socrates Russell.
Some doubt Socrates ever existed. Others are skeptical as to the accuracy of some of Plato's dialogues but nonetheless maintain that we can learn a substantial amount of historical information about Socrates from the dialogues.
Still others take practically everything Plato wrote about Socrates as veridical history. Regardless, it may be safe to say that Plato never meant to record Socrates verbatim and it may plausibly be concluded that his general ideas were communicated in the dialogues.
Socratic method[ edit ] As delineated in various writings, the meticulousness, articulation, and sophistication with which Socrates spoke supplies an outstanding problem solving technique — the Socratic Method. The Socratic method may be described as follows: If someone disagreed with him, Socrates would execute this process in order to bring about his interlocutor's reluctant admission of inconsistencies and contradictions.
Either Socrates would ask his debators questions about their claims that would lead them to admit their fallacy or Socrates would answer questions by posing questions meant to lead the other to answer their own query.
The participants were Socrates, Meno, Anytus, and one of Meno's slave boys. The dialogue begins with Meno asking Socrates whether virtue can be taught.
Socrates responds by stating that he does not know the definition of virtue. Meno replies by stating the characteristics of a virtuous man, to which Socrates responds that the characteristics of a virtuous man may be the by-products of virtuousness but they by no means define virtue.For example, Plato does not think that the arguments of Parmenides bc actually disprove the theory of Forms.
Rather, it is obviously Plato's view that Parmenides' arguments against the . Plato's Problem is the term given by Noam Chomsky to "the problem of explaining how we can know so much" given our limited experience.
Chomsky believes that Plato asked (using modern terms) how we should account for the rich, Who do you think . Do you think there is any way of making them believe it?' ' Not in the first generation', he said, 'but you might succeed with the second and later generations.' (Plato, BC Plato on the Mind.
Do we learn with one part of us, feel angry with another, and desire the pleasures of eating and sex with another?. Plato's Problem is the term given by Noam Chomsky to "the problem of explaining how we can know so much" given our limited experience. Chomsky believes that Plato asked (using modern terms) how we should account for the rich, intrinsic, common structure of human cognition, when it seems undetermined by extrinsic evidence presented to a person.
Plato: The Failure of Democracy. Plato () is often described as the greatest Western philosopher. Naturally, the prisoners think that the shadows are real things.
And when the puppeteers talk, the prisoners think that the shadows are talking. And that, according to Plato, is the reason why democracy does not work.
Good government. This is one of the major questions surrounding Plato, as he continually makes the assumption that soul brings life to the body; however I will come to my explanation to why I think this is a major assumption of Plato’s behalf later in this essay.