General resources and streams of reflection.
After the Middle Agessystematic approaches to Christology were developed. The term "Christology from above" refers to approaches that begin with the divinity and pre-existence of Christ as the Logos the Wordas expressed in the prologue to the Gospel of John.
Christology from above was emphasized in the ancient Church, beginning with Ignatius of Antioch in the second century. Other relevant topics of faith are: The term "monastic Christology" has been used to describe spiritual approaches developed by Anselm of CanterburyPeter Abelard and Bernard of Clairvaux.
The Franciscan piety of the 12th and 13th centuries led to "popular Christology". Systematic approaches by theologians, such as Thomas Aquinasare called "scholastic Christology".
Here, the apostle attempted to convey the underlying concepts about Christ to a Greek audience, and the sermon illustrates some key elements of future Christological discourses that were first brought forward by Paul. In early Christian belief, the concept of Kyrios included the pre-existence of Christfor they believed if Christ is one with God, he must have been The relationship between gospel and culture essay with God from the very beginning.
In Greek, this has at times been translated as Kyrios. While the term Mari expressed the relationship between Jesus and his disciples during his life, the Greek Kyrios came to represent his lordship over the world.
The Gospel of John provides a different perspective that focuses on his divinity. Richard Bauckham argues that Paul was not so influential that he could have invented the central doctrine of Christianity.
Before his active missionary work, there were already groups of Christians across the region. For example, a large group already existed in Rome even before Paul visited the place. The earliest centre of Christianity was the twelve apostles in Jerusalem. Paul himself consulted and sought guidance from the Christian leaders in Jerusalem Galatians 2: The old has passed away; behold, the new has come.
Following the Apostolic Agefrom the second century onwards, a number of controversies developed about how the human and divine are related within the person of Jesus. For example, Arianism did not endorse divinity, Ebionism argued Jesus was an ordinary mortal, while Gnosticism held docetic views which argued Christ was a spiritual being who only appeared to have a physical body.
Eventually, by the Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon inthe Hypostatic union was decreed—the proposition that Christ has one human nature [ physis ] and one divine nature [physis], united with neither confusion nor division—making this part of the creed of orthodox Christianity.
The language used was that the one God exists in three persons Father, Son, and Holy Spirit ; in particular, it was affirmed that the Son was homoousios of the same being as the Father. The Nicene Creed declared the full divinity and full humanity of Jesus.
The council was called because in defense of his loyal priest Anastasius, Nestorius had denied the Theotokos title for Mary and later contradicted Proclus during a sermon in Constantinople. Pope Celestine I who was already upset with Nestorius due to other matters wrote about this to Cyril of Alexandriawho orchestrated the council.
During the council, Nestorius defended his position by arguing there must be two persons of Christ, one human, the other divine, and Mary had given birth only to a human, hence could not be called the Theotokos, i. The debate about the single or dual nature of Christ ensued in Ephesus. Inthe Council of Chalcedon affirmed dyophysitism.
The Oriental Orthodox rejected this and subsequent councils and continued to consider themselves as miaphysite according to the faith put forth at the Councils of Nicaea and Ephesus. Most importantly, it unquestionably established the primacy of Rome in the East over those who accepted the Council of Chalcedon.
This was reaffirmed in when those Eastern Chalcedonians accepted the Formula of Hormisdas anathematizing all of their own Eastern Chalcedonian hierarchy who died out of communion with Rome from Although, the Chalcedonian Creed did not put an end to all Christological debate, it did clarify the terms used and became a point of reference for many future Christologies.Essay on the relationship between language and culture.
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Hundreds of books, articles, essays, and blog posts mull over the relationship between the Bible and culture. Despite such labor, evangelicals struggle to develop methods of contextualization that both recognize the Bible as supremely authoritative and reveal God’s truth in ways that make sense in diverse settings, not importing a foreign.
When discussing the relationship between humanity and the wider natural world, the biblical work of the book of Genesis and Robert Burns’ adjoining poems To a Mouse and To a Louse arguably offer a. Christianity and Popular Culture By David K.
Naugle Spring In his classic work Christ and Culture, H. Richard Niebuhr asserts that the relationship between earnest followers of Jesus Christ and human culture has been an "enduring problem.". Dec 22, · The Trinitarian division of the Godhead between God the Father, Jesus Christ the Son (the Λογοσ as defined in the Gospel of John), and the Holy Spirit recall a similarity with the above-mentioned triadic sequence developed within Platonic thought (Ferguson ).
Dec 10, · The study of the relationship between music and culture is called ethnomusicology. Ethnomusicologists spend many years studying the music of a particular culture. They live with the people they are studying and learn their languages, customs, and mythology.