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The expressions capture and culture fisheries are self-explanatory. In the former, one reaps the aquatic harvest without having to sow, whereas, in the latter, one has to sow Rice duck farming feasibility study seed, nurse it, tend it, rear it and harvest it when it grows to marketable size.
Examples of capture fisheries are the natural fisheries of the seas, estuaries, rivers, lagoons, large lakes etc. Pen culture, cage culture, culture in running waters, in recirculating systems and in reconditioned water are special types of aquaculture.
All shades of intermediate stages between true capture and culture fisheries exist such as in man-made-lakes, which are stocked extraneously but where no manuring, fertilizing and feeding are generally done.
The principles of management of capture and culture fisheries are very different from each other. In the case of capture fisheries one has to attempt to harvest maximum sustainable yield by regulating fishing effort and mesh after taking into account parameters of population dynamics such as rates of recruitment, natural and fishing mortalities, fish growth and size at which recruitment occurs.
Management of capture fisheries requires knowledge of the dynamics of the fish populations under exploitation. The extended exclusive economic zone of miles brings into focus the national and international complexities of regulating the capture fisheries of the seas and the oceans and apportionment of the marine harvest because fish populations do not abide by man-made boundaries.
In the case of culture fisheries, no detailed knowledge of the population dynamics of the cultivated finfish or shell fish is involved. Here, one has to breed, if one technically can, the chosen fish under controlled conditions, if it does not breed naturally, and develop fish husbandry practices so as to be able to formulate economically viable technologies.
For effective aquaculture, one has to gain familiarity and control water quality to enhance its biological productivity; one has to understand fish nutrition so as to be able to formulate nutritionally balanced fish diet; one has to delve deep into fish genetics so as to be able to evolve new varieties and strains which bestow commercial advantages to the product in terms of superior growth rate, nutritive value, bonelesness, taste, odour etc.
With this background information, a definition of aquaculture can be attempted. The crop may be that of an animal or a plant.
Naturally, the organism cultured has to be ordained by nature as aquatic. Tilapia, carp, trout, milkfish, bait minnow, yellow tail, mullet, cat fish.
Shrimps, prawns, oysters, mussels, pearl oyster for cultured pearls eg. Japanese pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata. Water chestnut Trapa natans. During the last decade or so there has been noticeable a global upsurge for aquaculture.
Some of the factors which have contributed to the upsurge are: Increased and continuously rising cost of fishing operations due to steep rise of the price of fuel. Fear of reduction in marine fish landings by countries that depend on fishing in the territorical waters of other countries as a result of the new laws of the sea of miles exclusive economic zone.
A persistent demand in most developed countries for high cost species like shrimps and prawns. This has greatly promoted interest in aquaculture in countries that wish to increase their foreign exchange earnings.
The behaviour of one of the world's most productive capture fisheries viz. Factors which have been unfavourable to the development of aquaculture are: Shortage of fertilizers in most developing countries and their allocation to agriculture.
In this respect, there is a measure of conflict between agriculture and aquaculture. Increasing prices and even the availability of fish meal, which, as stated earlier, is the ingredient of most fish-feeds. This is linked with the Peruvian Anchovy crisis, which, apart from aquaculture, adversely hit agriculture, through scarcity of guano and fertilizer, and poultry industry through scarcity of fish meal.
This has led to search for cheaper protein substitutes in fish feeds and spurt of research activity in that direction in different countries. While a general global environmental consciousness has ameliorated aquatic pollution and has thus helped fish culture, aquaculture itself is considered by some as a polluting agent, through release of water containing fish metabolites leading to eutrophication in the recipient waters, which may be a stream or a river or another kind of natural water-body.
Discharge regulations which are applicable to aquaculture by authorities in some countries. The basic fact is that fishes in general help to keep the aquatic environment clean through exercising biological control of vectors eg.
Aquaculture water and pond bottom mud often act as fertilizers to agricultural fields. Rarely does aquaculture discharge-water cause pollution. Authentic proof it required to establish that aquaculture is a polluter. In whichever case, if it is proved that aquaculture has polluted the environment, the discharge water from aquaculture establishment would need to be treated and rendered innocuous before release.
Aquatic pollution, through discharge of agricultural pesticides, domestic wastes, trade effluents and oil spills, has very adversely affected aquaculture.Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state.
Vol.7, No.3, May, Mathematical and Natural Sciences. Study on Bilinear Scheme and Application to Three-dimensional Convective Equation (Itaru Hataue and Yosuke Matsuda).
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