At that time one of the major hopes, as stated by Pea and Soloway in a report for the U. Congress Office of Technology Assessmentwas that technology might be the factor to help "bridge the ever-widening gaps between schools and society" pp. Much of the educational literature of years ago expressed concern regarding the relevancy of what the education system was able to provide with or without technology and many of the studies including this author's review concluded that the investigation of the impact of technology was just beginning Wellburn,p. Later in the same year, Kerr stated that "those of us who try to foster the use of technology in the schools are often guilty of hubris:
Disclaimer Factors that promote or inhibit the implementation of e-health systems: Correspondence to Frances S Mair e-mail: Bulletin of the World Health Organization ; Enthusiasm for technological innovation around e-health among policy-makers and health officials has, however, not always been matched by uptake and utilization in practice.
Sometimes these studies describe important successes, but more often they are accounts of complex processes with ambiguous outcomes.
Although the reviews have furthered knowledge by identifying factors thought to influence implementation processes and their outcomes, the underlying mechanisms at work have not been well characterized or explained.
The literature is fragmented across multiple subspecialty areas, so those charged with designing and implementing e-health systems may find it difficult to locate an appropriate body of evidence and to determine the relevance of that evidence to their specific circumstances.
In this meta-review we have sought to address these problems in two ways. First, we have performed a systematic review of reviews of e-health implementation studies, focusing on implementation processes rather than outcomes, to critically appraise such reviews, evaluate their methods, synthesize their results and highlight their key messages.
Our meta-review has enabled us to explore and evaluate a large and fragmented body of research in a coherent and economical way.
Second, we have interpreted our results in the light of an explanatory framework — Normalization Process Theory NPT 56 — that specifies mechanisms of importance in implementation processes. This approach has facilitated the explanation of those factors shown to influence the implementation of e-health systems in practice and allowed us to identify important gaps in the literature and to make rational recommendations for further primary research.
The objective of this review was to synthesize and summarize the findings of identified reviews and inform current and future e-health implementation programmes.
The review set out to answer two key questions: We used a previously developed method of categorization to classify e-health interventions into four domains: Qualitative meta-syntheses or meta-ethnographies: Exclusion Secondary analyses including qualitative meta-syntheses or meta-ethnographies of existing data sets for the purpose of presenting cumulative outcomes from personal research programmes.
Secondary analyses including qualitative meta-syntheses or meta-ethnographies of existing data sets for the purpose of presenting cumulative outcomes from personal research programmes. Discussions of literature included in contributions to theory building or critique.
Summaries of the literature for the purpose of information or commentary. Editorial discussions that argued the case for a field of research or a course of action.
Papers whose abstract identified them as reviews but that lacked supporting evidence in the main text e. Finding relevant studies We searched the following electronic bibliographic databases: Search terms used for systematic review of reviews on e-health implementation Thesaurus terms referring to e-health interventions were: Where appropriate, thesaurus terms were exploded to include all terms below the searched term in the thesaurus tree.
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The lowest term was always exploded. There are no thesaurus terms for implementation, so this concept was searched for by looking for the following text words in title, keywords or abstract: The concepts of e-health intervention and implementation were combined, and then the search was limited by publication type i.
None of the non-English-language citations or of the papers published before were relevant. These limits were used for searching all other databases. If either reviewer could not exclude the paper based on the abstract or citation, the full paper was obtained.
All papers obtained were double screened. In case of disagreement about inclusion or exclusion of a given paper, all reviewers read the paper and reached agreement through discussion. Data were extracted in two stages. First we used a standardized data extraction instrument to categorize papers on the basis of country of origin; e-health domain; publisher; date of publication; review aims and methods; databases searched within the review; inclusion and exclusion criteria of review; number of papers identified and number included in the review.
Second, as the literature under study focused on implementation processes rather than outcomes, we analysed the extracted data qualitatively using NPT, which has four constructs coherence, cognitive participation, collective action and reflexive monitoring as a coding framework.
As this was a qualitative content analysis, 11 we did not try to quantify the weight put on any one NPT construct in a given review. Dual coding enabled differences in coding and interpretation to be identified and discussed.
Disagreement, which was minimal, was resolved through discussion. If any areas of disagreement remained, a final reviewer served as arbiter. Results From unique citations screened, we excluded on the basis of the title or abstract and retrieved full-text articles.
Of these, 37 met the inclusion criteria Fig.Welcome to CPARS. CPARS hosts a suite of web-enabled applications that are used to document contractor and grantee performance information that is required by Federal Regulations.
9 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents the related literature and studies after the thorough and in-depth search done by the researchers. Best HP Black Friday deals: Pavilion laptops, desktops, and more.
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In early this author completed a lengthy literature review related to learning through telecommunications and computer technologies.