Review of related literature about internet

Contact How to Write a Literature Review A literature review is a specific type of research paper that focuses on published literature on a given topic. It is often the first step in doing original research, either scientific or otherwise.

Review of related literature about internet

Review of related literature about internet

The two main issues considered in this review are the evidence for the ability of these NPs to penetrate the skin to reach viable cells and the potential toxicity exerted by them. This review is a further update to include relevant literature that has been published between May and August The majority of in vitro studies using both animal and human skin and in vivo studies have shown that both ZnO and TiO2 NPs either do not penetrate or minimally penetrate the stratum corneum and underlying layers of skin.

This suggests that systemic absorption, hence toxicity, Review of related literature about internet highly unlikely.

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In conclusion, on current evidence, neither TiO2 nor ZnO NPs are likely to cause harm when used as ingredients in sunscreens and when sunscreens are used as directed. Introduction Nanoparticle characteristics Dermal exposure Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity Conclusion Bibliography 1.

Introduction Inorganic UV filters zinc oxide ZnO and titanium dioxide TiO2 have been used as ingredients in sunscreens for over three decades.

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However, one apparent disadvantage of ZnO and TiO2 is that in their macroparticulate bulk form in sunscreens, they are visible on the skin as an opaque layer resulting in reluctance of consumers to use the products. This undesirable visual effect has been addressed by decreasing the particle size of these metal oxides to nanoparticle NP form see Section 2.

When used in this NP form, these oxides cannot be seen on the skin but retain or even augment their UV-sunscreening properties. These NPs are particularly useful in sunscreens because of their intrinsic ability to filter ultraviolet UV A as well as UVB wave length spectra, thus providing broader protection than any other sunscreening agent.

A review on these issues was first published by the TGA inwhich was updated in and again in This scientific review report is limited to the review of safety concerns surrounding ZnO and TiO2 NPs present in sunscreens.

The two main issues considered in this review are the evidence for ability of these NPs to penetrate the skin to reach viable cells and the potential toxicity exerted by them.

Nanoparticle characteristics For the purpose of this report, the definition of TiO2 and ZnO NPs includes materials within the nanosize range of 1 to nm.

Nanosized TiO2 and ZnO exist in three separate states: Primary particles cluster together to form aggregates and are the smallest units present in a final sunscreen formulation Butler et al. The larger agglomerates form when aggregates bind loosely during the manufacturing process Schilling et al.

These are not efficient UV absorbers so they need to be broken down into the more efficient aggregates, which are chemically bound. This review includes assessments of NP preparations that contain aggregates and agglomerates.

The latter have been included because of their yet unclear potential to disaggregate and disagglomerate when applied on the skin in a sunscreen formulation. A preliminary study by Bennett et al. Thus, any potential hazard linked with nanosized particles is likely to be reduced if these particles aggregate and form structures above the nanoscale, which then do not dissociate into smaller NPs, thus reducing their ability to penetrate the skin.

The anatase form is substantially more photocatalytic and adheres more strongly to skin than the rutile form Turci et al.

The form and size of the NPs used in the studies summarised in this review are specified if these parameters were described in the study.

Furthermore, in a review of photoprotection, Lautenschlager et al. A number of studies published since these safety reviews have assessed the potential of ZnO NPs or TiO2 NPs to cause skin irritation reversible skin damagecorrosion irreversible necrotic damage extending into the dermis or sensitisation in the absence of UV or non-UV light.EDITORIAL.

Review of related literature about internet

Systematic literature review X narrative review. Scientific literature review articles are methodological studies which use database searches to retrieve results of research, and have as their mail goal the objective and theoretical discussion of a specific topic or theme.

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Review of Related Literature This section covers about the related studies as well as the foreign and local parallel studies of the proposed system gathered from several studies such as Internet, documentary works of other graduates and professionals in order to deepen the studies of the proposed system.

Traditional factors that once explained men’s sexual difficulties appear insufficient to account for the sharp rise in erectile dysfunction, delayed ejaculation, decreased sexual satisfaction, and diminished libido during partnered sex in men under This review (1) considers data from multiple domains, e.g., clinical, biological (addiction/urology), .

The Review of Biblical Literature (RBL), founded by the Society of Biblical Literature, presents reviews of books in biblical studies and related regardbouddhiste.coming in this digital form and in print, RBL is comprehensive, international, and timely.

The TGA's scientific review on the safety of nanoparticles in sunscreens has been updated.

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