Today, our genes testify to these prehistoric liaisons. Last year, when the Neanderthal genome was finally sequenced, it emerged that everyone outside of African can trace 1 and 4 percent of their DNA from Neanderthals. The discovery was a vindication for some and a surprise to others. For decades, palaeontologists had fought over different visions of the rise of early humans.
Read the original article. Maybe when you picture a university professor doing research it involves test tubes and beakers, or perhaps poring over musty manuscripts in a dimly lit library, or maybe going out into the field to examine new crop-growing techniques or animal-breeding methods.
Then there is what I do—cave diving. To study the biology and ecology of coastal, saltwater caves and the marine fauna that inhabit them, my cave diving partners and I head underground and underwater to explore these unique and challenging ecosystems.
Often we go to places no other human has been. While the peaks of the tallest mountains can be viewed from an airplane or the depths of the sea mapped with sonar, caves can only be explored firsthand. Around the globe, from Australia to the Mediterranean, from Hawaii to the Bahamas and throughout the Caribbean, I have explored more than 1, such underwater caves over the last 40 years.
The experience can be breathtaking. When you are down 60 to feet in a cave that has zero light and is 20 miles long, you never know what you are about to see as you turn the next corner.
My primary focus is searching for new forms of life—mostly white, eyeless crustaceans—that are specifically adapted to this totally dark, food-poor environment.
Scientific research as extreme sport The list of what can go wrong in a cave dive could fill your event planner. Equipment or light failure, leaking scuba tanks, broken guide lines, getting lost, cave collapse, stirred up silt resulting in zero visibility, poisonous gas mixtures—you get the idea.
I have had some close calls over the years, and sadly, have lost several good friends and researchers in cave accidents. A crustacean found in a cave off the coast of Bermuda.
My family has gotten used to the idea that what I do is not always a walk in the park. My colleagues and I usually go into a cave with teams of two to three divers and constantly look after each other to see if there is anything going wrong during our dives, which usually last about 90 minutes, but can be as long as three hours or more.
Some of our newfound animals have close relatives living in similar caves on opposite margins of the Atlantic Ocean or even the far side of the Earth such as the Bahamas versus Western Australia. While most of these caves are formed in limestone, they can also include seawater-flooded lava tubes created by volcanic eruptions.
Amazingly, similar types of animals inhabit both. In the deserts of West Texas, our team discovered and explored the deepest underwater cave in the U.
The graduate students in my lab work on a diverse group of questions. Other students are examining records of Ice Age sea level history held in cave sediments, as well as the presence of tree roots penetrating into underwater caves and their importance to the overlying tropical forest.
Our research has significant implications, especially concerning endangered species and environmental protection. Since many cave animals occur only in a single cave and nowhere else on Earth, pollution or destruction of caves can result in species extinctions.
Unfortunately, the creation of many protected areas and nature reserves failed to take cave species into account. Some discoveries can be completely unanticipated.
For example, when we sequenced DNA from a variety of arthropods, including crustaceans and insects, the data strongly support a sister group relationship between hexapods the insects and remipedes, a small and enigmatic group of marine crustaceans exclusively found in underwater caves.
This places the remipedes in a pivotal position to understanding the evolution of crustaceans and insects. Even at this stage of my life, to me the risks attendant to my cave diving research are worth it.
The chance to discover new forms of marine life, to view never-before-seen underwater formations, vast chambers, endless tunnels and deep chasms, to swim in some of the bluest and purest water on Earth—I will take that sort of research and its challenges any day.Whereas humans eat food to provide the fuel for respiration, plants make their own through photosynthesis.
Without photosynthesis, plants would not have carbohydrates for respiration. In addition, the carbohydrates produced in photosynthesis are also used to build plant cell structures, like the cellulose cell wall.
Center for The Study Photosynthesis in Humans The Center for the Study of Human Photosynthesis, was founded as a result of our discovery of the amazing ability of the human body to transform the visible and invisible light energy into chemical free energy through dissociation and re-formed from the water molecule, which forms a chemical cycle that first part is almost identical to the first.
In carrying out photosynthesis, plants absorb the carbon dioxide in the air (CO 2), a gas that human beings cannot use, and break it down into oxygen (O 2). Oxygen, which we take into our lungs when we inhale and which is essential to life, is the main product of photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis is the process by which higher plants manufacture dry matter through the aid of chlorophyll pigment, which uses solar energy to produce carbohydrates out of water and carbon dioxide.
The overall efficiency of this critical process is somewhat low, and its mechanics are. Photosynthesis is an essential process carried out in all chlorophyll-containing plants, algae and cyanobacteria, where a plant uses sunlight, water and carbon dioxide to produce food.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities.
This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek φῶς, phōs, "light", and σύνθεσις.