Despair Wisdom Here's an expanded chart extrapolating from Erikson that may help as you use Erikson for the essay final. Stage 1 - Basic Trust vs.
For example, in trust vs mistrust, trust is a positive trait while mistrust is a negative trait. If they are unable to do this, it will result to the negative trait, which will cause them problems later in life.
If an infant develops a sense of trust as a result of being looked after, attended to and loved by its parents, the infant will be happy and in good health. However if the infant develops a sense of mistrust as a result of being neglected or treated poorly by its parents, they will display a lack of interest in their surroundings and have poor health.
These are characteristics associated with infantile depression, which may then result in adult depression later in life. So overall, this stage can be summarized by saying that if the infant is looked after well develops trust it will be happy and healthy.
But if the infant is looked after poorly develops mistrust it will be depressed and unhealthy. A toddler with a sense of autonomy will be interested in exploring their surroundings, and will constantly be looking for new things to stimulate mentally themselves with.
They will tend to perform this exploration by themselves, and as a result may appear to wander off randomly or try to escape from their parents somehow to explore new surroundings. A toddler with a sense of shame and doubt will tend to do the opposite.
They will be more withdrawn, appear to lack confidence and not venture too far into areas they have not been before. So this stage can be summarized by saying that a child with autonomy likes to explore new things, whereas a child with shame and doubt does not.
A preschooler with a sense of initiative will tend to complete tasks that they start.
For example, if they start to draw a picture they will keep drawing until they finish it. A Erikson s stages of development with a sense of guilt will tend not to seek challenges, and tends to hold back expressing who they are and what they would like to do.
This stage can be summarized by saying that a preschooler with initiative expresses who they are, whereas a preschooler with guilt does not. Children with a sense of industry show an interest in school work, or tasks they are given at home and display a responsible attitude.
Children with a sense of inferiority will tend to display the opposite type of behavior, such as being uninterested in school work or tasks they are given because they feel they are not good enough to complete those tasks successfully.
This sense of inferiority can become further entrenched if that child is criticized by their parents or other people. So we can summarize this stage by saying that a child with a sense of industry is one who is interested in challenges and enjoys responsibility, being somewhat confident in their abilities to complete the tasks they are given.
Children with a sense of inferiority however do not like responsibility or being given tasks to complete. An adolescent with a sense of identity will feel as though they know where they are going in life, or at least what they would like to be when they are older. As a result they go throughout adolescence with that goal in mind, and tend to have a high level of self esteem because their life has direction and a sense of purpose.
Adolescents with a sense of role confusion feel as though they have no direction or purpose in life, and feel unsure as to what the future holds for them.
They are unlikely to have any long term goals, and their behavior could best be described as drifting aimlessly through life.
They are also likely to have low self esteem. So in summary, an adolescent with a sense of identity knows what they want to be when they are older. Whereas an adolescent with a sense of role confusion, is uncertain as to what they will be or do when they are older. However it is important to note that the stage of adulthood may be delayed somewhat, until the adolescent is able to form a sense of identity i.
Unless they are able to form a sense of identity, they will feel as though they are somewhat trapped in adolescence like they have never really matured fully from school. An adult who is capable of intimacy will tend to form close bonds with people, such as by forming friends and having romantic relationships with members of the opposite sex, eventually leading to marriage.
An adult with a sense of isolation finds it difficult to form relationships with people, and is unable to understand what other people are thinking or feeling. As a result they spend most of the time by themselves, with little or no friends.
This stage can be summarized by saying that an adult with intimacy can form close relationships with people, whereas an adult with isolation cannot. Generativity Vs Self-Absorption adult Generativity vs Self-absorption An adult with the trait of generativity is capable of productive work, which they usually undertake for several years.
This trait is also linked to helping others in some way, for example a mother who looks after her children. An adult with a trait of self absorption is more concerned with themselves rather than other people.
This stage can be summarized by saying that a person with generativity likes to give something to others, whereas a person with the trait of self absorption likes to take things from others. A person with a trait of integrity can face death with peace of mind, because they know their life has been lived to the fullest and they have achieved the things they wanted to do in life.
A person with a trait of despair feels a sense of desperation as their life draws to a close, because they feel they have wasted it and not been able to do the things they hoped to do. In summary a person with integrity can accept death, but a person with despair wishes for a second chance and for more time before they die.Erik Erikson's theory of the stages of human development.
Discussion. I can't think of anyone, other than Jean Piaget, who has promoted the stage approach to development more than Erik Erikson.
And yet stages are not at all a popular concept among personality theorists. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages Summary Chart. Stage Basic Conflict Important Events Key Questions to be answered Outcome Infancy (0 to 18 months).
Even though many theories exist regarding the stages of child growth and development, one of the most respected and influential theories has been that of.
References & Other Links Links. Check out these links for more information on Erik Erikson and his theory ofpsychosocial development. (Links are to local files. Erikson's theory suggests that the behavioral and psychological problems people face in their lives can be linked to the different stages of development.
This theory is a boon for psychologists to understand and help people who are facing certain troubles in their lives.