The first problem is that the early searchers after traits often assumed that there was a definite set of characteristics that made a leader — whatever the situation. In other words, they thought the same traits would work on a battlefield and in the staff room of a school. They minimized the impact of the situation Sadler
Most of these academic programs have aimed to be multidisciplinary in nature—drawing upon theories and applications from related fields such as sociologypsychologyphilosophyand management.
Such an approach, Rost has argued "allows scholars and practitioners to think radically new thoughts about leadership that are not possible Contemporary leadership situation a unidisciplinary approach" p.
Contemporary leadership scholars and researchers have often been questioned about the nature of their work, and its place within the academy, but much of the confusion surrounding leadership as a field of study may be attributed to a lack of understanding regarding transdisciplinaryinter- and multi- disciplinary academic fields of study in general.
The discipline which encompasses a host of sub-fields is filled with definitions, theories, styles, functions, competencies, and historical examples of successful and diverse leaders. Collectively, the research findings on leadership provide a far more sophisticated and complex view of the phenomenon than most of the simplistic views presented in the popular press.
The Ohio State Leadership Studies which began in the s  and focused on how leaders could satisfy common group needs.
The findings indicated that the two most important dimensions in leadership included: These characteristics could be either high or low and were independent of one another. The research was based on questionnaires to leaders and subordinates.
The Michigan Studies of Leadership  which began in the s  and indicated that leaders could be classified as either "employee centered," or "job centered. These theories described employee motivation in the workforce. Both theories begin with the premise that the role of management is to assemble the factors of production, including people, for the economic benefit of the firm.
Beyond this point, the two theories of management diverge.
They developed the leadership grid which focused on concern for results on the one axis and concern for people on the other axis. In addition to these studies, leadership has been examined from an academic perspective through several theoretical lenses: Attempt to describe the types of behavior and personality tendencies associated with effective leadership.
Incorporate environmental and situational considerations into leader behavior. The transactional leader focuses on managerial reward and contingent valuation.
The transformational leader focuses on motivation and goal attainment. Some of the styles of leadership studied include:2 Leadership theory and educational outcomes: The case of distributed and transformational leadership Abstract The effect of school leadership on educational outcomes has been widely debated in.
Common contemporary leadership challenges (with examples) Leadership definition and concept of effective leadership Vroom and Jago (, p) define the term leadership as “a process of motivating people to work together collaboratively to accomplish great things”.
Leadership related research at Air University - selected papers below Hispanics: an Untapped Leadership Resource, AWC research paper ; Centralized Command - Decentralized Execution: Implications of Operating in a Network Centric Warfare Environment, AWC research paper ; Degree Feedback: Key to Translating Air Force Core Values Into Behavioral Change, AWC research paper.
Our Leadership Programs embrace the use of reflective learning. This approach to learning encourages participants to examine their personal experiences, the experiences of their cohort and the experiences of the many highly influential external speakers who contribute throughout the Program.
Introduction. This paper presents a model of holistic leadership that is proposed for inclusion with the integrative class leadership theories. Explore Ashford University's online Business Administration degree courses and classes covering areas of management, leadership, and more.