Seizing the Initiative Through Creative Thinking Versus Reacting to the Enemy local copyby Grothe, SAMS paper, Leadership must be committed to learning, underwrite experimentation, and create an environment that generates creative thought and innovation.
I respect Richard immensely, but I have a problem describing as "gentrification" middle-class white people moving back to neighborhoods that were initially settled by middle-class white and black people, but that became slums after white flight in the s.
To me, that is recovery, plain and simple. Furthermore, if people buy grand mansions built by successful merchants - that were later turned into crappy apartments - and renovate them as mansions, is that gentrification?
Treme was traditionally settled by working class craftsmen who built their own homes. There, I can see an argument for gentrification. But certainly in Mid-City and the LGD - and possibly in the Marigny, Bywater and other areas, the people who own these homes now are comparable with those who built them originally.
They enjoy many of the same pursuits. The fact that our tastes are now more sophisticated and we eat goat cheese versus Creole cream cheese is a sign of the times and a product of modern life, not gentrification.
Your point is interesting; however, the past where most of the population lived in the urban core has no resemblance to the modern day "recovery", which really is gentrification. The urban core has morphed completely from what it once was.
The "flight" phenomenon is not so much "white" as "upwardly mobile". It is an economic phenomenon rather than a racial one. Any minority member who could afford to, fled too. They have "white trash" or "Chavs" making up the majority of the population in some blighted areas of cities in the UK; and anyone who can, gets out, including once-poor Asians who work harder and are more thrifty.
I know there is a paper somewhere which finds that cities that retained "industry" in their cores for the longest, lost the MOST residents. A higher rate of industries moving out of the core actually correlates to earlier metamorphosis to "gentrified" conditions.
One of the curious features of the so-called "urban renewal" taking place in the United States is the insistence of two new master-signifiers: In Paris, where I have lived for the last nine years, neither of these terms has imposed itself on general discourse as they have in the United States.
Although the process of gentrification exists, it does not capture the imagination of those who witness, participate in, or are displaced because of it. It would appear that in France, "gentrification" is considered an inevitable feature of the ebb and flow of city life.
Likewise with "sustainability", which is not seen as a magical master-signifier leading the way forward towards the perfect form of social organization, but rather as something that is simply preferable to its alternatives. In other words, these two concepts, although they exist in France and in French, have not inspired the same fetishization that they have in the United States.
Let us first address the question of gentrification. We must not, however, content ourselves with a simple description of the process by which succeeding demographic waves transform a city from, essentially, poor and black to rich and white.
We must rather focus our attention on the new meta-phenomenon of the fascination with this process on the part of those who are its agents.
Rich areas go to seed. Poor areas get rich again. Such is the cycle of city life. What is happening now is different. If so many people are interested in gentrification as such, if this process suddenly needs a word, it is because this word refers to what might be referred to as a symptom in all of its dignity and not simply a background peristaltic process.
Speaking broadly, what distinguishes a symptom from a simple conflict is that the symptom incarnates the dialectical process as such. Like the eye of the storm on Jupiter that roams across the surface of the planet without ever resolving itself, the symptom is that nodal point in the dialectical process where the irreducible ontological kernel of conflict manifests itself.
Of what, then, is gentrification a symptom? Gentrification is a symptom of the passage from the social form of a World proper to the form of a non-world. A world is a consistent society ruled by a differential symbolic logic in which every member of the society occupies a fixed place in relation to the "au-moins-un" father at the center, who embodies and quarantines Difference as such.
A world is a legible whole with a specific shape. A non-world has no shape, is a refusal of shape as such. Gentrification has thus gone from a banal process to an object of fascination because we sense that there is something irreversible and properly Historical about what is happening to cities today.
It is not just that poor areas are become rich; it is nothing less than a particular relationship with the Real that is being lost. Let us allow Campanella to describe the process: The four-phase cycle often begins with—forgive my tongue-in-cheek use of vernacular stereotypes: On their unshod heels come 2 hipsters, who, also fixated upon dissing the mainstream but better educated and obsessively self-aware, see these punk-infused neighborhoods as bastions of coolness.
Their presence generates a certain funky vibe that appeals to the third phase of the gentrification sequence: Usually childless, they often convert doubles to singles, which removes rentable housing stock from the neighborhood even as property values rise and lower-class renters find themselves priced out their own neighborhoods.The Holocaust (from the Greek ὁλόκαυστος holókaustos: hólos, “whole” and kaustós, “burnt”), also known as the Shoah (Hebrew: השואה, HaShoah, “the catastrophe”), was a genocide in which Adolf Hitler’s Nazi Germany and its collaborators killed about six million Jews.
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