There are two methods of traffic-analysis attack, passive and active. In passive traffic-analysis method, the attacker extracts features from the traffic of a specific flow on one side of the network and looks for those features on the other side of the network. In active traffic-analysis method, the attacker alters the timings of the packets of a flow according to a specific pattern and looks for that pattern on the other side of the network; therefore, the attacker can link the flows in one side to the other side of the network and break the anonymity of it.
Hegemony and resistance through identity formations Culture Interpretive Realism has been the dominant school of thought, in both theory and practice focusing on peace through national strength, armament, and balance of power.
For Realists, order is the primary normative value and historical analysis is the soundest methodology to pursue. Liberals, by contrast, have pointed to the integrating forces of the world market as a new reality creating considerable international interdependency in the postwar period.
For liberals, freedom in property ownership, politics, and trade is the primary normative value. In their studies of international relations, Liberals supplement historical analysis with a variety of quantitative and qualitative methods such as time-series, correlation analyses, and simulation games.
Marxists and Neo-Marxists, although in decline politically, continue to present powerful theoretical arguments that have an appeal in the peripheries of the world.
They view international relations primarily in terms of class conflict within and among nations and argue that since the 16th century, capitalism has increasingly incorporated the peripheries into a world system of domination and exploitation through imperialism, colonialism, and neo-colonialism Wallerstein ; Schiller The social revolutions in Russia, China, Cuba, Vietnam, and many less developed countries LDCs have attempted to break away from the fetters of the world capitalist system.
But, Marxists further argue, internal contradictions, wars, and revolutionary struggles will continue to challenge the dominant capitalist system. For Marxists, equality is the primary normative value while historical materialism and dialectics are the dominant methodologies.
Although the ideologies of its proponents differ, the centrality of civil society as expressed through community formations, in contrast nation-state and social classes, is what unifies this theoretical perspective. As expressed in its cultural, communal, and institutional formations, civil society thus serves as the underlying unit of analysis.
In the traditional literature of international relations, this school of thought is closely linked to the institutionalist perspectives emphasizing the integration processes of world and regional systems. However, it also has manifested itself in a variety of anti-colonial, nationalist, tribalist, localist, ethnic, and religious movements focused on mobilizing the common historical memories of the peripheries in waging a cultural and political struggle against the centers.
The Communitarians thus emphasize the centrality of political community as a condition for a durable peace at local, national, regional, and global levels. Community is thus the primary normative value to be pursued, while institution building for world economic, political, and cultural integration are the policy recommendation.
Emanating from the poststructuralist and deconstructionist schools of thought, postmodernism is deeply imbued with linguistic analyses of knowledge and power.
It therefore highlights the central importance of identity as a major principle in the globalization and localization of knowledge and power struggles and truth claims.
Generally committed to radical relativism, postmodernism interprets contemporary international relations as a process of negotiation of knowledge, power, and identity through military, economic, and cultural arsenals of influence.
While some tendencies in postmodernism are nihilistic, others seek out those universals in global knowledge that could unify an otherwise divided world. Although each theoretical discourse has its own unique set of assumptions and conclusions reflecting competing interests in the international community, global communication has forced them into a grudging dialogue.
Table 1 confines itself to a typology of the main theoretical strands. There are many theoretical hybrids that have enriched international discourse on world order. However, it is significant to note that the axial principles of the five schools of thought together constitute the five democratic goals of order, liberty, equality, community, and identity in the modern world.
Thus, the effects of global communication on the evolution of international relations theory and its underlying international system have been two-fold.
On the one hand, global communication has empowered the peripheries of power to progressively engage in the international discourse on the aims and methods of the international system. In this way, Liberalism challenged the traditional state-centered, protectionist, mercantilist policies of the 16th to 18th centuries with its revolutionary doctrines of laissez-faire in international trade and protection of property and liberty in domestic life.
However, it also incorporated much of the geopolitical Realist view of power politics in its justification of the colonial and imperial orders while increasingly emphasizing the role of IGOs in the management of the international system. Similarly, Marxism challenged Liberalism's dominance in the 19th and 20th centuries by its mobilization of the peripheries against the colonialist and imperialist orders.
However, in practice, Communist regimes often cynically followed Realist geopolitical doctrines in favor of international proletarian solidarity.
Liberalism, in turn, undermined the Communist regimes by its control of the main world capital, of trade, and of news flows through appeals to democratic values. In a world system dominated by state and corporate bureaucracies, Communitarianism is the latest phase in a continuing theoretical and ideological struggle by the peripheries to put the human rights of the oppressed on the international agenda.
In its preoccupation with the collective rights of community, however, Communitarianism cannot altogether ignore the Realist focus on political order, the Liberal preoccupation with individual freedom, and the Marxist concern with social equality.
Postmodernism deconstructs the truth claims of all of the foregoing schools by casting doubt on their meta-narratives. But it also posits its own meta-narrative of relativism as a truth claim.
Tensions among the five theoretical schools clearly reveal the tensions among the competing aims of democracy: On the other hand, global communication has also served as a channel for theoretical integration.
Political leadership in international relations has increasingly come to mean moral leadership in such great debates as colonialism, development, population, environment, nuclear weapons, human rights, women and minority status, etc. Global communication has thus historically broadened and deepened the parameters of discourse from Realism to Liberalism, Marxism, Communitarianism, and now Postmodernism.
Each school of thought has had to respond to the concerns of new layers of the international community as they have emerged from conditions of oppression and silence. International relations theory has thus progressively incorporated the new democratic claims for equality, self-determination, and cultural identity.
For example, the slogan of "New World Order" has gone through several mutations in this century. For the Allies, it meant a reorganization of the world around the United Nations principles of collective security policed by the five permanent members of the Security Council.
To the Group of 77 at the United Nations calling for a New World Economic Order in a General Assembly resolution, the new order meant a revamped international economic system to redress the terms of trade in favor of the LDCs.During World War I, wireless telegraph communication was employed extensively by the navies of the world and had a major influence on the character of naval warfare.
High-powered shore and ship stations made wireless . Nov 10, · Technology during World War II played a crucial role in determining the outcome of the greatest war of all.
Much of it had begun development during the interwar years of the s and s, some was developed in response to lessons learned during the war, and yet more was only beginning to be developed as the war ended.
World War I was so deadly primarily because it saw the use of 19th-century military tactics with 20th-century technology. At the beginning of the conflict, the cavalry was still the premier branch of military service, and the commanders believed that this war would be like the last big European.
Contemporary Media Analysis Mid-term. STUDY. Communication between two or a few people is: interpersonal communication. The first electronic digital computer, _____, was developed by the British during World War II to help break the German's secret code.
Colossus. commerce, war, social interaction, communication, and information. From a political and military perspective, territory is the space of human habitation, it is a space to be defended and.
The First World War (WWI) was fought from to and the Second World War (or WWII) was fought from to They were the largest military conflicts in human history. Both wars involved military alliances between different groups of countries.