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Prior to the February Revolutionthe first phase of the Russian Revolutions ofthe party worked underground as organized anti-Tsarist groups.
By the time of the revolution, many of the party's central leaders, including Lenin, were in exile. Alongside it, grassroots general assemblies spontaneously formed, called sovietsand a dual-power structure between the soviets and the An analysis of the bolsheviks a subdivision of the russian social democrat party government was in place until such a time that their differences would be reconciled in a post-provisional government.
Lenin was at this time in exile in Switzerland where he, with other dissidents in exile, managed to arrange with the Imperial German government safe passage through Germany in a sealed train back to Russia through the continent amidst the ongoing World War.
In April, Lenin arrived in Petrograd renamed former St. Petersburg and condemned the provisional government, calling for the advancement of the revolution towards the transformation of the ongoing war into a war of the working class against capitalism.
The revolution did in fact prove to not yet be over, as tensions between the social forces aligned with the soviets councils and those with the provisional government now led by Alexander Kerenskyin powercame into explosive tensions during that summer.
The Bolsheviks had rapidly increased their political presence from May onward through the popularity of their programme, notably calling for an immediate end to the war, land reform for the peasants, and restoring food allocation to the urban population.
This programme was translated to the masses through simple slogans that patiently explained their solution to each crisis the revolution created.
Up to July these policies were disseminated through 41 publications, Pravda being the main paper, with a readership ofThis was roughly halved after the repression of the Bolsheviks following the July Days demonstrations so that even by the end of August the principal paper of the Bolsheviks had a print run of only 50, copies.
Despite this, their ideas gained them increasing popularity in elections to the soviets.
Lavr Kornilov to eliminate the socialists from the provisional government. As the general consensus within the soviets moved leftward, less militant forces began to abandon them, leaving the Bolsheviks in a stronger position.
By October, the Bolsheviks were demanding the full transfer of power to the soviets and for total rejection of the Kerensky led provisional government's legitimacy.
The provisional government, insistent on maintaining the universally despised war effort on the Eastern Front because of treaty ties with its Allies and fears of Imperial German victoryhad become socially isolated and had no enthusiastic support on the streets. On 7 November 25 October, old stylethe Bolsheviks led an armed insurrection which overthrew the Kerensky provisional government and left the soviets as the sole governing force in Russia.
In the aftermath of the October Revolutionthe soviets united federally and the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republicthe world's first constitutionally socialist state, was established.
Outside of Russia, social-democrats who supported the soviet government began to identify as communists while those who opposed it retained the social-democratic label. Inas the Civil War was drawing to a close, Lenin proposed the New Economic Policy NEPa system of state capitalism that started the process of industrialization and post-war recovery.
The Bolsheviks believed at this time that Russia, being among the most economically undeveloped and socially backward countries in Europe, had not yet reached the necessary conditions of development for socialism to become a practical pursuit and that this would have to wait for such conditions to arrive under capitalist development as had been achieved in more advanced countries such as England and Germany.
He died on 21 January only thirteen months after the founding of the Soviet Union, of which he would become regarded as the founding father.
Stalin era —53 [ edit ] After Lenin's death, a power struggle ensued between Joseph Stalinthe party's General Secretaryand Leon Trotskythe Minister of Defenceeach with highly contrasting visions for the future direction of the country.
Trotsky sought to implement a policy of permanent revolutionwhich was predicated on the notion that the Soviet Union would not be able to survive in a socialist character when surrounded by hostile governments and therefore concluded that it was necessary to actively support similar revolutions in the more advanced capitalist countries.
Stalin, however, argued that such a foreign policy would not be feasible with the capabilities then possessed by the Soviet Union and that it would invite the country's destruction by engaging in armed conflict. Rather, Stalin argued that the Soviet Union should in the meantime pursue peaceful coexistence and invite foreign investment in order to develop the country's economy and build socialism in one country.
Joseph Stalinleader of the party from to his death in Ultimately, Stalin gained the greatest support within the party, and Trotsky, who was increasingly viewed as a collaborator with outside forces in an effort to depose Stalin, was isolated and subsequently expelled from the party and exiled from the country in Stalin's policies henceforth would later become collectively known as Stalinism.
Inthe name of the party was changed to the All-Union Communist Party bolsheviksreflecting that the republics outside of Russia proper were no longer part of an all-encompassing Russian state. Stalin sought to formalize the party's ideological outlook into a philosophical hybrid of the original ideas of Lenin with classical Marxism into what would be called Marxism—Leninism.
Stalin's position as General Secretary became the top executive position within the party, giving Stalin significant authority over party and state policy. By the end of the s, diplomatic relations with western countries were deteriorating to the point that there was growing fear of another allied attack on the Soviet Union.
Within the country, the conditions of the NEP had enabled growing inequalities between increasingly wealthy strata and the remaining poor. The combination of these tensions led the party leadership to conclude that it was necessary for the government's survival to pursue a new policy that would centralize economic activity and accelerate industrialization.
To do this, the first five-year plan was implemented in The plan doubled the industrial workforce, proletarianizing many of the peasants by removing them from their land and assembling them into urban centers. Peasants who remained in agricultural work were also made to have a similarly proletarian relationship to their labor through the policies of collectivizationwhich turned feudal-style farms into collective farms which would be in a cooperative nature under the direction of the state.
These two shifts changed the base of Soviet society towards a more working class alignment.The April Theses (Russian: апрельские тезисы, transliteration: aprel'skie tezisy) were a series of ten directives issued by the Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin upon his return to Petrograd from his exile in Switzerland via Germany and Finland.
The Theses were mostly aimed at fellow Bolsheviks in Russia and returning to Russia from exile.
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In the cities the working-men were drawn mainly into the Social Democratic Working-men's party, founded by Plechanov and others in , but the peasants, in so far as they were aroused at all, rallied around the standard of the Socialist-Revolutionists, successors to the Will of the People party.
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Nov 07, · Up until , all Marxists around the world agreed with Engels, including both the Menshevik and Bolshevik factions of the Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP). The Bolsheviks’ strategy for revolution was built around the goal of establishing a democratic republic.
Mar 24, · This video is an in depth analysis of the cause of the split between the Bolshevik and Menshevik factions of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party.